Friday, February 7, 2020
Family Violence - Essay Example As the causes of family violence are understood, there are effective methods that society can employ to reduce the frequency of this horrific behavior. Patterns. There are many patterns relevant to family violence which have been identified by health and law enforcement officials. The first of these is the patterns associated with cause. It should be stressed that seeking a simple, single identifying cause is not the correct approach. In fact, "one-dimensional accounts of cause and effect are manifestly inadequate" (Shipway 4). One of the many causes for family violence is the fact that it can be a learned behavior. It is common knowledge that children who grow up in abusive environments have a much higher likelihood of becoming abusers themselves when compared to those children who have been raised in non-violent homes. There is also the matter of individual deviant behavior. Sometimes, regardless of an individual's history, they turn violent and are unable to control their impulses. There are also behavioral patterns associated with family violence. One major pattern in this category is that of substance abuse. Whether they are over-consuming alcohol or using street drugs, individuals who abuse these substances tend to be involved in family violence incidents more frequently. Another behavioral pattern is that of rage, or "acting out." For whatever reason, when these people are under stress, they tend to strike out violently. The most frequent recipient of this violence is a family member. There are two victim response patterns that are particularly noteworthy. The first is the tendency to react to violence with violence. In many cases, an abuser will initiate an act of violence against a family member, only to have that person turn violent themselves. Many a drunken husband has found that a wife with a frying pan can be a formidable opponent. At the opposite end of the spectrum is the victim response of total passivity. In this pattern, the victim never stands up for themselves and just takes whatever abuse the violent party wants to subject them to. Strategies. Once the patterns are identified, there are some strategies that can be implemented which will address and help resolve the problem. In terms of social policy, there is the need to address the issues of negative learned behavior, provide behavioral modification tools for the individual actors, and ensure the protection of the victims. It is important that there be a multi-agency approach to these solutions. For example, instead of simply relying on law enforcement to battle the criminal aspect of family violence, social services should respond by "setting up treatment centers for the violators, offering them aggression management therapy, and at the same time supporting the women through assertiveness training and therapy" (Shipway 15). As education is provided so that the pattern of learned violence is addressed, therapy could be included so that effective behavior modification could supplement that education. These two strategic efforts, combined with law enforcement's protection of the victims or removal of the abuser from the family environment, present a combination of methods that, when taken together, are more effective than each one standing alone. With the combination of understanding the patterns that contribute to
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Is There a Biodiversity Crisis Essay Most commonly, biodiversity is referred to as the differences in the forms of life inside an ecosystem. There are different definitions regarding to the scope and to whoever has defined the word biodiversity. The first definition which the most common definition of the word states that biodiversity is the variation of life at levels of biological organization. This definition simply states that biodiversity claims the general differences in the living organisms that exist in an ecosystem. The second definition characterizes biodiversity as an assessment of the overall health of an ecosystem. The health of an ecosystem is relatively based on the number of species that thrives in an ecosystem. Thus, biodiversity is also measure of the relative physical condition of the different organisms alive in an ecosystem. Another definition, which is most commonly used by ecologists, describes biodiversity as the entirety of the genes, species and ecosystems of a certain region. This third definition relates the three basic levels that identify biodiversity: (1) genetic diversity, (2) species diversity and, (3) ecosystem diversity. In the main, biodiversity for ecologists also relates the interactions of species to species and also the interaction of the species to the environment they are in. Therefore, it is not only the species of organism that are interacting with one another but also the organism are interacting with the air, soil, water and the factors that constitutes the totality of the environment. The environment is very essential to all the living forms in the planet. Clearly, it is the provider of our most basic needs: food, water and air. It gives us water for drinking, air for breathing, food to supply as with energy and other necessities. Humans are pat of a very big ecosystem Ã¢â¬â the earth. With all the animals and the other forms of living things in the earth interacting with one another, surely, one kind of species needs the other in order to survive. Such as the way the spider needs its web and the horse needs the grass, all the organisms, need the planetÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth in order to survive. The collection of plants and animals are the ones that keep an ecosystem stable. The more diverse an ecosystem is, the more that it is stable and the more that it is likely to survive. Biodiversity crisis is one of the threats that lead to the extinction of certain species of animals and plants. Still, nobody knows the importance of each and every living thing on earth. However, their loss can be equated to a loss in medicine, technology and balance in nature, which in turn mar risk the lives of humans. Factors There are so many factors that contribute to the weakening and deterioration of biodiversity. It includes too much use and over exploitation, physical and chemical modification of the areas which serves as habitats for certain organism, introduction of foreign species of organisms to an area and modifications in the conditions of habitats. Some factors that contribute to the total fall of biodiversity in an area are also socially based. This includes rapid population growth, over exploitation of resources, useless and ineffective knowledge, unworthy management and increasing demand for areas to be modified into industrial and technological spots. Human activity is a large fraction of the causes of biodiversity crisis of the world. The diverse activities of humans can be accounted as the primary cause of the degradation of the diversity of life of the planet. Certain human activities create a huge impact to the environment. Two of which are human population and the level of consumption of humankind. These two factors constitutes to the major environmental changes that are happening in the planet. Also, the principal activities of humans for the purpose of his survival in the planet such as agriculture, fishing, hunting, manufacturing, trade, industry, and even recreational activities such as hiking, mountaineering and tours are directly and indirectly creating a major effect on the environmental balance. Records show that hunting and sever use and exploitation of the animal life and environment are the most cases that can be observed in the word today. These activities are the biggest threats to the existence of various kinds of animals not only in Tibet but also in other countries such as Thailand and Philippines. In Tibet, exploitation of animals is a major environmental problem. Animals are being killed for commercial reasons. Skin of rare animals, antlers of deer, heads of various animals mostly the Tibetan gazelle and fur of wild animals such as leopards can be seen in the market and are sold openly without penalties and forced restrictions by the authorities. More to that, hunters are not only free to kill animals in the wild but also, they can get their own permit to hunt in the wild. They are given permit to kill animals for the purpose of producing income and for the purpose of causing a rapid decrease in the population of the animals that they use for commercial purposes. Also, another major cause of biodiversity crisis in the world and still, an example of human activity is forest degradation and transformation of habitats to industrial sites. Forest degradation does not only concern the loss of trees in the rainforests but also the loss of the animals that depends on these trees for survival. Wide exploitation of the forests has been recorded in most of the countries in the world as early as human population began to rapidly increase. The act of cutting trees to be used either for construction of houses or for the purpose of selling to companies and other groups and for the purpose of having a new site wherein industries, houses, subdivisions and chemical plants are to be erected, all constitutes to the improper and over utilization of resources. These activities are the roots of extensive migration of birds and animals to other areas which causes over crowding of species in an area and wide losses in certain species that eventually dies due to the loss of trees and the loss of the existence of rainforests which serves as their habitat. Losses These human activities in effect, cause enormous impact to the environment. Effects incorporate land transformations, rapid decrease in the population of specie which mostly results to extinction and immense changes in the patterns of weather, water cycle, nutrient accumulation and chemical introduction. In the long run, these direct effects of human activities consequently are the ones that cause various changes in the global climate, patterns of migration, reproduction and habitat and an overall irreversible loss form the environment and consequently a loss to the humankind. On the whole, human activities have brought changes not only to the other living organism in the planet but also to the planet itself. Accordingly, human activities have caused the environment to weaken inducing a less stable planet that could less support existence of life. The world is rapidly loosing its wealth and richness. Due to the acts of man, not only he and the other forms of life are at risk but also the whole world. ManÃ¢â¬â¢s activities constitute much of the factors that contribute to this hasty decline. As man continues to increase its population and greedy concept of living, the diversity of life is steadily going to a point of fall. As this happens, lakes and rivers are transformed to highways and canals, forests will soon be out of trees and animals and will be turned to deserts. Natural diversity will be continuously raped and will make way for the rise of towering buildings, winding roads, infrastructures, houses, villages, factories, mines, schools, shopping malls and gardens. Existence of the technological advancements will soon interfere with the usual patterns of the weather and global climate as well as the lives of different species. In turn, they will be extinct and will never be enjoyed again by the coming generations. Eventually, the works of man today will weaken and continuously exploit the wealth of planet until comes to a point where it can no longer hold for the existence of man and his doings. References Center for Biodiversity and Conservation. (2007). Biodiversity in Crisis?. Retrieved December 6, 2007, from http://cbc.amnh. org/crisis/crisis. html. Simberloff, Daniel. (2007). Habitat Change, Population Growth, and the Biodiversity Crisis: Getting Ahead of the Extinction Curve. Retrieved, December 5, 2007, from http://www. angelo. edu/events/university_symposium/93_Simberloff. html. Shah, Anup. (2007) Biodiversity. Retrieved, December 5, 2007, from http://www. globalissues. org/EnvIssues/Biodiversity. asp. The Fruitarian Foundation. (2000). The Biodiversity Crisis. Retrieved December 5, 2007, from http://www. fruitarian. com/ab/TheBiodiversityCrisis. htm.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Herbal Weight Loss Products An analysis of two particularly controversial products Herbal remedies, along with vitamins and various other types of dietary supplements, have long been popular with the customers of health food stores. But now they are part of a boom in alternative remedies and are widely available in supermarkets and pharmacies. In recent months, there has been an incredible surge in the sheer volume of scientific studies that have discussed the effectiveness of such herbal products. Medical scientists consider such findings promising but preliminary; additional research must definitely be explored. However, herbal supplement manufacturers are using such studies to boost the credibility of traditional herbal remedies. There are currently no government regulations to specify the purity, dosage or effectiveness of these products. Many consumers are opting to try them, assuming that the "natural" products with a long history of use will undoubtedly be safe. As herbal remedies continue to gain in popularity, reports by consumers of serious complications are also increasing. In one statistical report it was stated that 500 incidents were reported to the Food and Drug Administration last year alone. Leading the list of dangerous and ineffective ingredients are ephedra (or Ma Huang) and Chromium. Ephedra alone has accounted for more than half of the complaints in the past three years and has been associated with more than three dozen deaths. Thus the validity and the efficacy of these claims will need to be addressed. What are the claims of "Natural" Healing? It is obvious that our bodies are remarkable machines. However, the claim is that natural remedies aid the body's immune system toward tot... ...ances M. "Chromium Picolinate--Still Hot on the Market". Healthy Weight Journal. Jul;8(4), 1994. Dolby, Victoria. "Tip the Scales in Your Favor with Metabolic Weight Loss Nutrients". Better Nutrition. Oct; 58(10), 1996, Okie, Susan. "Looking for Mr. GoodPill; Americans Have Fallen in Love With Herbal Supplements--But Do They Work? Are They Safe?" The Washington Post, Nov. 25, 1997. Reading, S.A. "Chromium Picolinate". Journal of Florida Medical Association. Jan;83(1): 29-31, 1996. Stearns, D.M. "A prediction of chromium (III) accumulation in humans from chromium dietary supplements". FASEB. Dec;9(15):1650-7, 1995 Trent, L.K. "Effects of chromium picolinate on body composition". Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. Dec;35(4):273-80. Walsh, Julie. "The great chromium debate". Bicycling. Oct/Nov; 37(10), 1996.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"An unofficial market in which goods are bought and sold at prices lower than the official price set by a regulatory agency Grey marketing (also sometimes known as Ã¢â¬Å"gray marketÃ¢â¬ ) involves the trade of legal goods through unauthorized, unofficial, and unintended channels of distribution. Hence, trademarked products are often exported from one country to another and sold by unauthorized individuals or firms. This practice is also often known as parallel importing, product diverting, and even arbitrage, and typically flourishes when a product is in short supply, when manufacturers resort to skimming strategies in specific markets. A good example is the trading of crude oil by an individual. The grey market includes services that are typically unregistered to evade taxes. Perfectly legitimate occupations, such as domestic help, babysitters, part time beauticians and freelancers, may not be registered. Not only is it difficult to detect such defaulters, the punishment is usually mild. For example, even as Apple, Inc., rolled out its latest third-generation iPhone on July 11, 2008, several retail stores throughout the world, including those in China and Thailand, continued to take orders even though this product was not being sold in those markets. Their computer codes were unlocked, so that the phones could be used with different mobile service providers. Even in India, one of the fastest-growing markets for cell phones, Apple delayed the release of the original iPhone until mid-2008, a year after the release in the United States and six months after its release in Europe, because of the fear of grey market sales. A wide range of goods and services have been sold through grey markets, including automobiles, broadcasting delivery, college textbooks, pharmaceuticals, photographic equipment, video games, and even wines. Research has demonstrated that every one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s eight major export regions has experienced grey marketing activity damaging to their operations. Parallel market is further encouraged by periods of war or any other crisis. During harsh political conditions or natural disasters, scarce goods are rationed by the government. People have the tendency to violate restrictions or rationing laws to secure the products they desire. In the United States, grey market goods are prohibited according to Section 526 of the Tariff Act of 1930, which expressly forbids importation of goods of foreign manufacture without permission of the trademark owner. However, the implementation of regulation by the U.S. Customs Service and the courtsÃ¢â¬â¢ interpretation of the law have not been in line with each other. In a recent study, about 13 percent of the firms in North America have reported some form of grey marketing. A positive outcome of grey markets is that they provide brand-name goods at lower prices to the customer. They can create incremental sales in markets not in direct competition with sanctioned dealers, and sometimes help companies overcome distribution bottlenecks because of local government regulations. Occasionally, it is less expensive to tolerate grey marketing than to shut down the operations completely because of the time and resources required to monitor the violations. Finally, eradicating grey marketing activities can provide a firm with sound marketing intelligence regarding customers in these markets and their buying behavior. On the other hand, the phenomenon obviously also has several drawbacks for companies. It simultaneously undermines the manufacturerÃ¢â¬â¢s distribution arrangements and their ability to control quality it creates the dilution of exclusivity and damages existing channel relationships. Official dealers may not choose to offer significant services in order to compete with the grey market price for the product. There is likely to be an erosion of the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s global image, and the firm is unlikely to have the ability to use traditional pricing strategies, thus having less control over their overall marketing strategies. 2.According To World Health Organization: 2.1.Parallel Imports: Parallel imports are imports of a patented or trademarked product from a country where it is already marketed. For example, in Mozambique 100 units of BayerÃ¢â¬â¢s ciprofloxacin (500mg) costs US$740, but in India Bayer sells the same drug for US$15 (owing to local generic competition). Mozambique can import the product from India without BayerÃ¢â¬â¢s consent. According to the theory of exhaustion of intellectual property rights, the exclusive right of the patent holder to import the protected product is exhausted, and thus ends, when the product is first launched on the market. When a state or group of states applies this principle of exhaustion of intellectual property rights in a given territory, parallel importation is authorized to all residents in the state in question. In a state that does not recognize this principle, however, only the patent holder who has been registered has the right to import the protected product. Sometimes referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"grey marketÃ¢â¬ imports, parallel imports often takes place when there is differential pricing of the same product Ã¢â¬â either brand-name or generic drugs Ã¢â¬â in different markets (usually owing to local manufacturing costs or market conditions). The Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement explicitly states that this practice cannot be challenged under the World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement system and so is effectively a matter of national discretion. Parallel imports can reduce the price of health products and pharmaceuticals by introducing competition. However, they can also affect the negotiation of tiered pricing regimes with pharmaceutical companies. If a private pharmaceutical company agrees to sell a product at a lower price in poor countries, it will need some assurance that the cheaper product will not be imported back into its rich country markets, undercutting its profits (product di version). 3.Grey Marketing by Industry: 3.1. IPO Grey Marketing in India: Cities like Ahmedabad, Kolkata and Rajkot are the most active centers for the IPO (initial public offerings) grey market. Trades done in the grey market are settled on the day of listing. Once the deal is done at a stipulated price, the seller must deliver the shares after he has been allotted the shares by the company. If the seller falls short in receiving the exact number of shares that he has sold in anticipation, then he must buy the shares on the market (once the share is listed) to honor his commitment. Most of the recently-concluded initial public offerings are quoting at a significant premium in the grey market, compared to their issue prices; this means that the issues are perceived to have been underpriced. Many traders short sell in the grey market if they feel that the premium on offer is unwarranted and that the stock may list at a price lower than what most market players expect it to. Though grey-market operators say that there is a constant change in the grey-market premium, it largely depends on the subscription on the last day and the market conditions, post issue closing. 3.1.1. In the stock market, what is the concept of grey marketing? Grey marketing is a trade of something legal but through unofficial and unauthorized distribution channels. In contrast, black marketing is a trade of illegal goods or services through illegal channels. The grey market of goods is to import and sell products through market channels which are not authorized by the manufacturers. It occurs when the prices of a product differ significantly in different countries. The grey market of securities markets and IPO (Initial Public Offer) is to buy and sell the shares to be allotted in the future. Once the trading is done in the grey market at a stipulated price, the seller must deliver the sold number of shares to the buyer on the day of listing to honor the commitment. 3.1.2.Effect of Grey Market Trading on Indian Economy 126.96.36.199Grey Market: Rs. 1L in Reliance Power IPO will earn 9% in 20 days [pic] AHMEDABAD: Reliance Power (REPL) seems to have electrified grey market operations in Ahmedabad with operators willing to shell out as much as Rs. 9,000 for every application of Rs. 1 lakh. In the bustling grey market in Gujarat, such high rates are unheard of. The last benchmark for hectic activity was the Mundra Port and SEZ IPO in November when the grey market started buying applications for Rs. 7,500 in the last stages of the issue. With the REPL offer ready to hit the market on January 15, the grey market is trading the shares and the applications. It basically means that if you have Rs. 1 lakh to invest when the IPO opens, you have a secured 9% return within 20 days of closing of the issue when the stock would be listed. After SEBI cleared REPLÃ¢â¬â¢s IPO, grey markets had resumed trading in the stock with premium saudas (trades) at Rs. 340-350 and application buying rate at Rs. 7,500. While the premium has zoomed to Rs. 390-400, the applications rate touched Rs. 9,000 and could break the Rs. 10,000 mark by the time the IPO hits the market, sources said. The excitement on the counter in the grey market has come on the heels of news that REPL will offer 5% discount to retail investors, who will also get an option to pay only 25% of IPO amount at the time of application. 188.8.131.52.Reliance Power IPO: Grey market sees Rs. 2000 crore loss: [pic] AHMEDABAD: The dismal debut of Reliance Power on the bourses may result in losses to the tune of Rs. 2,000 crore in the grey market. Operators also fear a payment crisis as many investors are threatening to hold back payments. Grey market players Ã¢â¬â both operators and investors Ã¢â¬â who were expecting the stock to list in the range of Rs. 550-Rs 600 per share, were in shock as Reliance Power opened at Rs. 430 and closed at Rs. 372.50 on its first day on the exchanges. This could also adversely impact the premium transactions in forthcoming IPOs (initial public offers). Ever since the grey market began trading in this IPO, the premium on Reliance Power shares had peaked at Rs. 450 over and above IPO price of Rs. 450 per share. Majority of trading in R-Power IPO in the grey market was done at an average premium of Rs. 300 per share. As the issue closed at Rs. 372.50, most market operators, who had taken huge exposures, have lost Rs. 377 per share. It is estimated the grey market has already taken an exposure of five crore equity shares, leading to losses worth Rs. 1,900 crore. It is also learnt that many investors in Jaipur have refused to honor their payment commitment to grey market operators in Ahmedabad, as the IPO plunged after listing. This could well result in operators losing out on large sums of money and have a cascading effect in the market. 184.108.40.206.Grey market bets big time on DLF IPO: [pic] AHMEDABAD: Only time can tell whether you could get the elusive pit of gold at the end of the DLF IPO rainbow. But, street savvy investors in Gujarat have already started earning a secured 4% return on their investment in the initial public offer of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest realty developers, much before the offer hits the market on June 11. Large numbers of investors, who want to earn secured interest earning up to 4%, are selling their IPO applications to grey market operators in Ahmedabad. Although the DLF IPO is opening from May 11, IPO applications are being sold anywhere between Rs. 3,800 and Rs 4,000 for a single application worth Rs. 1 lakh. Activities in the AhmedabadÃ¢â¬â¢s grey market, popularly known as Sakar Bazar, has gradually been heightening as the market enters the final week before a deluge of public offering hit the primary markets. Led by DLF IPO, the next two months could see close to Rs. 50,000 crore being raised from the market. On one hand, the grey market is witnessing huge trading in IPOs, which are yet to be listed on the bourse. On another hand, people are selling their IPO applications to the grey market operators for a secured interest. Even as DLF shares are yet to be listed on the bourse, operators in AhmedabadÃ¢â¬â¢s grey market are trading DLF shares at a premium of Rs 37 to Rs 38 on its issue price of Rs 500-Rs 550. Similarly, Meghmani Organic is fetching a premium of Rs 5 over its issue price. And, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not only in the case of these two IPOs. All IPOs are traded in the Ahmedabad grey market, which seems to have a handle on the pricing of IPO listings. It has been found by most market participant of the capital market that majority of the IPOsÃ¢â¬â¢ listing prices are normally close to the last trading price of the IPO in the AhmedabadÃ¢â¬â¢s grey market. 4.WINE: The grey market in wine flourishes, particularly in the case of champagne. Many large champagne producers do their own importing, and desire to maintain independent price points in different markets. Thus a bottle of Champagne might cost US$35 in the United States while the same bottle might be only 15 Euros in France. It is often profitable to buy the wine in Europe from an authorized distributor, and resell it in the US. In the case of enormous pricing disparity, it is not uncommon to find a grey-marketed wine selling for less at retail than the wholesale price of the authorized distributor. In the case of a large availability disparity between the US and Europe, the grey market price may be the same or higher than the authorized price. Typically the importer of a wine is the one most concerned about grey market sources. The winemaker may or may not care what happens to the wine after it is sold, although he or she might complain to appease an importer. 4.1.India imports 72,000 cases of wine a year PUNE: The Indian wine market is growing at 30-40% annually and this rate will continue for the next 5-6 years in keeping with global trends. However, the current per person per year consumption of wine in the country is as low as 9-10 ml. The Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation has mentioned this in its note on the grape wine industry of Maharashtra, based on a report prepared by Rabo International Bank. The highest wine consuming countries such as France and Italy has per person wine consumption as high as 60 to 70 liters annually. Those in China consume four liters, the report stated. Domestically, 80 % of wine consumption is confined to major cities like Mumbai (39 %), Delhi (23 %), Bangalore (9 %) and Goa (9 %) whereas rest of India has only 20 % consumption. The MIDC report further stated that India currently imports 72,000 wine cases (nine liters to a case) a year. About 32,000 of this are bottled at origin and the other 40,000 cases are imported in bulk flexi bags, which are subsequently bottled by Indian wineries. Besides this, about 12,000-15,000 wine cases are sold through the grey market. In 2009-2010, some seven lakh liters of wine worth Rs. 5.92 crore was exported to France, Italy, Germany, US, UK, Singapore and Belgium from Maharashtra. The state had announced its `Maharashtra Grape Processing Industrial Policy 2001Ã¢â¬ ² on September 19, 2001 with wine as an important part of it. According to a report by MIDC, four components are required to make good wine. Those are soil, climate, vines and human factor Ã¢â¬â that is the people who brew wine. A lot depends on finding the ideal balance between the characteristic of soil, the microclimate and the grape varieties. At present wine grapes are grown on a 7,000 acre area in the state. In 2010 there were a total of 74 wines making units (36 in Nashik, 13 in Sangli, 12 in Pune, 5 in Solapur, 4 in Osmanabad, 3 in Buldana and 1 in Latur district) that had started production in the state. At present, total production of wine in the country is 1.45 crore litres from 90 wineries in the country. Of that, 1.32 crore litres wine is produced by 75 wineries in Maharashtra. The total investment in wineries was Rs 431.71 crore in 2009 which rose to Rs 452.10 crore in 2012. France, Italy, Spain, Germany are the main grape wine producing countries in the world. Nearly 32,000 million litres wine is produced per annum. 5.AUTOMOBILES: Automobile manufacturers segment world markets by territory and price, thus creating a demand for grey import vehicles. In the United Kingdom the term applies to vehicles imported either new from cheaper European countries or from Japanese domestic models imported secondhand from Japan or Singapore, which both have strict laws against older cars. This importation of secondhand models from Japan/Singapore tends to involve sports models that were never released in the UK or models that fetch a high price in the UK due to their performance or status. Although some grey imports are a bargain, some buyers have discovered that their vehicles do not meet British regulations or that parts and service are hard to come by because these cars are different from the versions sold new in the UK. In New Zealand, grey market vehicles comprise a majority of cars in the national fleet. These secondhand imports have achieved Ã¢â¬ËnormalÃ¢â¬â¢ status and are used and serviced without comment throughout society. A huge industry servicing and supplying parts for these vehicles has developed. After years of trying to stop grey imports the car companies themselves have become involved, importing in competition with their own new models. 6.MOBILE HANDSET: iphone Launch gets hit by Grey Marketing: 6.1.Low-cost handsets to get impacted, says industry: Nearly 75 per cent of the currently available mobile handset models in the market could get defunct or redesigned with the Government deciding to bring in new radiation norms for the telecom sector. The Department of Telecom has accepted a proposal by an inter-ministerial committee to lower the permitted radiation in mobile phones by 50 per cent. The move will impact almost all the handset makers, especially those who operate in the low-end segment. 6.2.Handset price: According to the Indian Cellular Association, the new radiation norm will jack up handset price by 5-30 per cent as handset makers will have to make additional investments to meet the new rules. According to the new guidelines, handsets should not have Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of more than 1.6 watt/kg taken over a volume containing as mass of 1 gram of human issue. This is the same levels allowed in the US. India till now followed the European standards wherein handset makers are allowed to have SAR levels of 2 watt/kg on a 10 gram human issue. Globally, about 1,500 million mobile phones are sold per year out of which more than 80 per cent is sold in countries where European guidelines are followed. In India, there about 10 global brands, another 15-20 Indian brands and more than 4,000 importers who trade in unbranded Chinese phones. Ã¢â¬Å"Most of the handsets under Rs 11,999 which are approximately 645 or so would have to be redesigned. Effectively, this would disrupt the entire operation of more than 88 per cent of the legal handsets sold in the market (the legal market is approximately 70-75 per cent of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s total volume market). All global brands and domestic brands will get seriously impacted by this,Ã¢â¬ Mr. Pankaj Mohindroo, President, Indian Cellular Association. 6.3.Chinese handsets: The industry is worried that the new guidelines will have no impact on the Chinese unbranded grey market phones, which is handled by over 4,000 importers with volumes between 3 and 4 million a month. The handset makers fear that the grey market will get a window of opportunity of approximately 6-9 months to rapidly expand their volumes before the branded companies start bringing redesigned phones. Ã¢â¬Å"If the Government is bringing new laws to address concerns of health and security then it should also set up good monitoring. While the branded phones will have to bear the costs to redesign phones, grey market devices will continue to be available without any check,Ã¢â¬ said Mr. S.N. Rai, Co-founder & Director, Lava International Ã¢â¬â one of the Indian handset Company. According to ICA, the industry would be able to redesign approximately 100 models in about 6-9 months and 200 in 24 months. There are about 850 handset models available in the market at present. Ã¢â¬Å"The legal industry will never be able to redesign all the models and the availability would constrict to at best 150- 200 models within 18-24 months of implementation of such norms,Ã¢â¬ Mr. Mohindroo said 6.4.Ultra low-cast models: ICA said that in the case of ultra low-cost handsets, it may not be possible to redesign these handsets and all the models in the ultra low-cost handsets less than Rs 1,500 could get knocked out of the market. Apart from lowering the permitted radiation levels, the new guidelines also make it mandatory for handset makers to display the SAR level on the handset. The DoT is expected to notify the new norms shortly. Keywords: mobile radiation norms, low-cost handsets to get impacted, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) 6.5.Dark days for mobile grey market: The import duty on mobile phones has been reduced from about 16 per cent to around 4 per cent.Industry participants also believe that the shift from grey market to the legal market is by and large on the account of growing number of mobile retail stores. Ã¢â¬Å"The mobile stores provide accessibility to the consumers. Our mobile stores are at all the visible locations, so consumers can walk in anywhere and get the best deals possible,Ã¢â¬ said Subhiksha marketing vice-president Mohit Khattar. Industry analysts say that a huge grey market exists because of the differential of around 10 per cent to 25 per cent between legal and grey handset prices.With growing competition in the organized mobile retail market, players are offering products at lower prices. This, in turn, helps counter the grey market and bolsters footfalls in these stores. Ã¢â¬Å"Consumers can buy high-end, genuine branded handsets with guarantee of replacement or repair through the mobile retail stores. Trust is the predominant factor that consumers are turning towards the branded retail stores,Ã¢â¬ said HotSpot CEO Sanjeev Mahajan. Consumers are opting for accessibility and do not mind paying extra for it. The grey markets operate from a few areas in a city. On the other hand, mobile stores are more easily accessible as they are located in all prominent markets. The growing brand consciousness among the people, analysts say is also propelling the consumers to approach branded mobile retail stores. Mobile phone retail chains like Mobile Store, Mobi Retail, RPG Cellucom, currently account for just 7 percent of the overall mobile handset market, which has a market share of Rs 15,000 crore. Ã¢â¬Å"Currently, the impact of mobile retail stores on the grey market is minimal. However, considering the rapid growth rate of organized mobile retail, its contribution is set to increase in the next 3-4 years,Ã¢â¬ said retail consultancy Technopak Advisors chairman Arvind Singhal. Though the grey market in mobile phones has reduced, a large (75%) grey market still exists in mobile phone accessories such as batteries and chargers, which are often available at one-tenth the price of company branded accessories . Last year, the mobile phone makers asked finance ministry to reduce 34% duty on imported accessories, but nothing concrete has happened as yet. 7.PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPTMENT: Generally regarded as legal in most countries, parallel imports make expensive photographic equipment attractive to savvy users. The grey market in photographic equipment is thriving in highly developed and heavily taxed states like Singapore, with dealers importing directly from lower taxed states and selling at a lower price, creating competition against a local authorised distributor. Grey sets, as colloquially called, are often comparable to authorised imports. Lenses or flash units of parallel imports often only differ by the warranty provided, and since the grey sets were manufactured for another state, photographic equipment manufacturers often offer local warranty, instead of international warranty, which will render grey sets ineligible for warranty claims with the manufacturer. Due to the nature of local warranty, importers of grey sets usually mask the flaw in warranty with their own warranty schemes. These are often warranties with reduced benefits or lasting a shorter period of time. Grey sets do not differ particularly from an authorised import. They look and function identically, apart from the manufacturerÃ¢â¬â¢s warranties having been voided. 7.1.Grey market for digital cameras may bite the dust soon: KOLKATA: Grey markets for digital cameras may soon become a thing of past, feel the imaging majors in India. Ã¢â¬Å"It is certainly the year of demise for grey market in compact category, and the sun will set soon in DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) segment,Ã¢â¬ said Alok Bharadwaj, senior V-P, Canon India. Though being an unorganized sector, it is spread in many metro cities, like in Kolkata, at Metro Galli, Kidderpore, and in Delhi, at Pallika Bazar. Ã¢â¬Å"Earlier, NikonÃ¢â¬â¢s competition was Nikon grey but now the scenario has changed and grey market has shrunk a lot. Its no more a cause for concern,Ã¢â¬ said Sajjan Kumar, GM, imaging, Nikon India. According to Bharadwaj, the grey market in the country is mostly activated in DSLR segment and itÃ¢â¬â¢s roughly around Rs. 250 crore, but since India is the main focus for all the global camera majors and as a consequence of that, the market is also increasing rapidly, which is ultimately causing the death of grey market. Ã¢â¬Å"The general trend amongst consumers is to buy expensive lenses and camera bodies from the grey market at a cheaper rate, but now with most of the players providing the product at a place nearby them, with an extended guarantee period and free memory cards, people are ready to buy it from us officially,Ã¢â¬ said Kumar. Ã¢â¬Å"More awareness among the consumers and round-the-clock marketing have also stepped up the chances to diminish the grey market,Ã¢â¬ said Hiroshi Takashina, MD, Nikon India. It may be noted that Nikon India has recently doubled its marketing expenditure to Rs. 120 crore from last yearÃ¢â¬â¢s Rs 60 crore. Another common feeling amongst the leading camera players is, if government reduces tax on the DSLR bodies, lens, accessories, then the process of erasing grey market will be rapid. Ã¢â¬Å"Currently, the basic duty on lenses and accessories is still at 10%, which makes it a little difficult for us to bring DSLR prices further down, despite a phenomenal growth in the sector,Ã¢â¬ said a top official of Olympus India. Currently only 1% of Olympus IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s sales is affected by grey market. Ã¢â¬Å"The Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) will benefit us surely to cut the excessive costing,Ã¢â¬ feels Bharadwaj. It may be noted that India and Japan have signed the CEPA Act, under which both the countries will enjoy some trade benefits during the bilateral trade. According to Takashina, India is a price conscious market where 75% of the sales are in the category of cameras priced below Rs.10,000, so with more shopping shop concept and 24 hour customer care backup, it is now more sensible for a customer to buy the gear from official dealers than to go and buy it from the grey market. 8.BROADCASTING: In television and radio broadcasting, grey markets primarily exist in relation to satellite radio and satellite television delivery. The most common form is companies reselling the equipment and services of a provider not licensed to operate in the market. 8.1Industry body opposes levy on TV sets: [pic] NEW DELHI: Consumer electronics industry said on Monday that sale of television sets would be hit and investment flows affected, if government imposes a license fee on TV sets. Also, share of the grey market would go up if such a proposal is accepted, Anoop Kumar president Consumer Electronics and TV Manufacturers Association (Cetma) said.[pic] Government is planning to impose a license fee of 10-15% on purchase price of each TV set, to provide financial help to Prasar Bharati. If the proposed levy is imposed, the level of taxation on TV sets would rise to 45-50% and the share of the grey market will certainly increase, a Cetma official said. When total incidence of taxes on ACs was about 50%, the grey market was more than 80%. With the reduction of taxes, the grey market for ACs has practically disappeared. The increase in the share of grey market for TV sets will ultimately result in loss of revenue to the government, Cetma added. Cetma said any Ã¢â¬Å"additional burdenÃ¢â¬ would result in a major slowdown of the television industry, already reeling under heavy taxes. 9.VIDEO GAMES: Grey markets can sometimes develop for select video game consoles and titles whose demand temporarily outstrips supply and the local shops run out of stock, this happens especially during the holiday season. Other popular items, such as dolls can also be affected. In such situations the grey market price may be considerably higher than the manufacturerÃ¢â¬â¢s suggested retail price. Online auction sites such as eBay have contributed to the emergence of the video game grey market. 10.How to control the web of Grey Marketing? In order to reduce the impact of grey market goods, firms can take the following strategies: Enforcement of intellectual property rights Manufacturers or their licensees often seek to enforce trademark or other intellectual-property rights against the grey market. Such rights may be exercised against the import, sale and/or advertisement of grey imports. However, such rights can be limited. Examples of such limitations include the first-sale doctrine in the United States and the doctrine of the exhaustion of rights in the European Union. When grey-market products are advertised on Google, eBay or other legitimate web sites, it is possible to petition for removal of any advertisements that violate trademark or copyright laws. This can be done directly, without the involvement of legal professionals. eBay, for example, will remove listings of such products even in countries where their purchase and use is not against the law. Refusal to supply Manufacturers may refuse to supply distributors and retailers (and with commercial products, customers) that trade in grey-market goods. They may also more broadly limit supplies in markets where prices are low. Refusal to honor warranties Manufacturers may refuse to honor the warranty of an item purchased from grey-market sources, on the grounds that the higher price on the non-grey market reflects a higher level of service. Alternatively, they may provide the warranty service only from the manufacturerÃ¢â¬â¢s subsidiary in the intended country of import, not the diverted third country where the grey goods are ultimately sold by the distributor or retailer. This response to the grey market is especially evident in electronics goods. Reliance on regulation Local laws (or customer demand) concerning distribution and packaging (for example, the language on labels, units of measurement, and nutritional disclosure on foodstuffs) can be brought into play, as can national standards certifications for certain goods. Tracing grey-market goods Manufacturers may give the same item different model numbers in different countries, even though the functions of the item are identical, so that they can identify grey imports. Manufacturers can also use batch codes to enable similar tracing of grey imports. Parallel market importers often de-code the product in order to avoid the identification of the supplier. In the United States, courts have decided that decoding which blemishes the product is a material alteration, rendering the product infringed. Parallel market importers have worked around this limitation by developing new removal techniques.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Ray and Faye Copeland lust for killing came with their retirement years. Why this couple, both in their 70s, went from being loving grandparents to serial killers, who used the clothing of their victims to make winter quilts to snuggle under, is both morbid and perplexing. Here is their story. Ray Copeland Born in Oklahoma in 1914, Ray Copelands family never spent much time in the same place. When he was a child, his family was constantly moving, on the hunt for employment. The situation worsened during the Depression, and Copeland dropped out of school and began scrounging for money. Not satisfied with earning meager wages, he got involved in scamming people out of property and money. In 1939 Copeland was found guilty of stealing livestock and check forgery. He was sentenced to a year in jail. Faye Wilson Copeland Copeland met Faye Wilson not long after he was released from jail in 1940. They had a brief courtship, then married and began having children one after another. With several additional mouths to feed, Copeland quickly returned to stealing fromÃ livestock ranchers. While this may have been his chosen profession, he wasnt very good at it. Ã He was constantly getting arrested and did several stints in jail. His scam was not very slick. He would buy cattle at auctions, write fraudulent checks, sell the cattle and try to leave town before the auctioneers were informed that the checks were bad. If he failed to leave town in time, he would promise to make the checks good, but never follow through, In time, he was banned from buying and selling livestock. He needed a scam that would allow him to operate despite the ban, one that he could profit from, and that the police could not trace back to him. It took him 40 years to think one up. Copeland began hiring vagrants and drifters to work on his farm. He set up checking accounts for them, then sent them to buy livestock with bad checks from their accounts. Copeland then sold the livestock and the drifters would be fired and sent on their way. This kept the police off his back for awhile, but in time he was caught and returned to jail. When he got out, he went back to the same scam, but this time he made sure the hired help would never be caught, or even heard from again. The Copeland Investigation In October 1989, Missouri police received a tip that a human skull and bones could be found on farmland owned by an elderly couple, Ray and Faye Copeland. Ray Copelands last known stint with the law involved a livestock scam, so as police questioned Ray inside his farmhouse about the scam, authorities searched the property. It did not take them long to find five decomposing bodies buried in shallow graves around the farm. The autopsy report determined that each man had been shot in the back of the head at close range. A register, with names of the transient farmhands who had worked for the Copelands, helped police identify the bodies. Twelve of the names, including the five victims found, had a crude X in Fayes handwriting, marked next toÃ each name. More Disturbing Evidence Authorities found a .22-calibre Marlin bolt-action rifle inside the Copeland home, which ballistics tests proved to be the same weapon as the one used in the murders. The most disturbing piece of evidence, besides the scattered bones and rifle, was a handmade quilt Faye Copeland made out of the dead victims clothing. The Copelands were quickly charged with five murders, identified as Paul Jason Cowart, John W Freeman, Jimmie Dale Harvey, Wayne Warner and Dennis Murphy. Faye Insisted Knowing Nothing About Murders Faye Copeland claimed to know nothing about the murdersÃ and stuck to her story even after being offered a deal to change her murder charges to conspiracy to commit murder in exchange for information about the remaining seven missing men listed in her register. Although a conspiracy charge would have meant her spending less than a year in prison, compared to the possibility of receiving the death sentence, Faye continued to insist she knew nothing about the murders. Ray Attempts an Insanity Plea Ray first tried to plead insanity, but eventually gave up and tried to work out a plea agreement with prosecutors. The authorities were not willing to go along and the first-degree murder charges remained intact. During Faye Copelands trial, her attorney tried to prove that Faye was another one of Rays victims and that she suffered from Battered Women Syndrome. There was little doubt that Faye had indeed been a battered wife, but that not was enough for the jury to excuse her cold murderous actions. The jury found Faye Copeland guilty of murder and she was sentenced to death by lethal injection. Soon after, Ray was also found guilty and sentenced to death. The Oldest Couple Sentenced to Death The Copelands made their mark in history for being the oldest couple to be sentenced to death, however, neither were executed. Ray died in 1993 on death row. Fayes sentence was commuted to life in prison. In 2002 Faye was compassionate release from prison because of her declining health and she died in a nursing home in December 2003, at age 83. Source The Copeland Killings by T. Miller
Friday, December 27, 2019
theory of social change Marx s focus on the process of social change is so central to this thinking that it informs all his writings. The motor force of history for Marx is not to be found in any extra-human agency, be it providence or the objective spirit. Marx insisted that men make their own history. Human history is the process through which men change themselves even as they pit themselves against nature to dominate it. In the course of their history men increasingly transform nature to make it better serve their own purposes. And, in the process of transforming nature, they transform themselves. In contrast to all animals who can only passively adjust to nature s requirements by finding a niche in the ecological orderÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦His writings on the regime of Napoleon III illustrate in masterful fashion a historical situation in which the forces of the old class order and of the new are so nearly balanced that neither is able to prevail, thus giving rise to a Bonapartist stalemate. Moreover, though throughout his life Marx held fast to the belief that the future belongs to the working class, which will lead the way to the emergence of a classless society, he was nevertheless willing to consider the possibility that the working class may not be equal to its historical task so that mankind would degenerate into a new kind of barbarism. Marx conceived of four major successive modes of production in the history of mankind after the initial stage of primitive communism: the Asiatic, the ancient, the feudal, and the modern bourgeois form. Each of these came into existence through contradictions and antagonisms that had developed in the previous order. No social order ever disappears before all the productive forces for which there is room in it have been developed; and new higher relations of production never appear before the material conditions of their existence have matured in the womb of the old society. Class antagonisms specific to each particular mode of productionShow MoreRelatedKarl Marx: Conflict Theory Essay878 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesKarl Marx: Conflict Theory The most influential socialist thinker from the 19th century is Karl Marx. Karl Marx can be considered a great philosopher, social scientist, historian or revolutionary. Marx proposed what is known as the conflict theory. The conflict theory looks at how certain social interactions occur through conflict. People engage in conflict everyday to gain more power then others in society. Karl Marx is known for studying the conflicts that occur between different classes. KarlRead MoreKarl Marx s Theories Of History And The Theory Of Human Nature Essay1714 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesKarl Marx was a nineteenth century philosopher, born in Trier, Prussia (Germany) in 1818 to a middle class family and later died in 1883. Karl MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophies on society, politics and economics is collectively understood as Marxism. He was a mat erialist and an atheist who had a profound impact on the world of intellectual thought. This paper will aim to discuss and determine with reference to MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s deterministic theory of history and the theory of human nature, if human beings are essentiallyRead MoreKarl Marx s Theory Of Alienation Essay1686 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSociologist Karl Marx concentrated deeply on economic problems and related these matters to social issues. For example, when Marx examined capitalism in the labour sector he came to the conclusion that it drove workers to feel alienated from the product, themselves and those surrounding them. This essay will firstly give a brief overview of industrial capitalism and discuss Karl MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s early life and how he came up with the theory of alienation through his influences and life experiences. SecondlyRead MoreThe Communist Manifesto And Das Kapital1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesKarl Marx A German philosopher, economist, journalist and revolutionary scientist, Marx was best known for his work in economics. He laid the foundations for today s theories of labor and capital. The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital were among the most famous of his published works. Born to a middle-class family in Trier, Prussia in 1818, his parents were Jewish, but converted to Christianity in 1816 due to strict anti- Jewish laws. He was baptized as a Christian at the age of six but laterRead MoreKarl Marx And The German Political System1427 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesKarl Marx was born on May 5th 1818 in Trier, Germany, which was then known as the Kingdom of Prussia. Karl was a philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. His work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labor and itÃ¢â¬â¢s relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought. He was born into a wealthy upper middle-class family. He attended school at the Univers ity of Bonn and later he studied law and philosophy at the University of BerlinRead MoreMarx: The Economic Basis of Human Societies 1093 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMarx: The Economic Basis of Human Societies Introduction Marxism as it is known today states that Ã¢â¬Å"actions and human institutions are economically determined, that the class struggle is the basic agency of historical changeÃ¢â¬ (Collins English Dictionary, 1994: 959). In this assignment the worldview of Karl Marx will be discovered and the crux of Marxism will be uncovered. MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s Life and Work Karl Marx was born in 1818 in Germany during an oppressive time. His Jewish father who; under the discriminatoryRead MoreThe Contribution Of Karl Marx Essay1337 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescontribution of Karl Marx to the study of sociology, throughout this essay I will be discussing what Marxism is, how Marxism has affected todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society as well as academics that did not agree with MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s theories. Marxism is the social and economic system based on the theories of Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels. Karl Marx was born in Trier, Germany in 1818, Marx studied law and Berlin University but later changed to philosophy until finally perusing his interest in journalism. When Marx finished hisRead MoreThe Three Sociologists: Marx, Durheim, and Weber1051 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesworld with many different theories and key elements within the sociological imagination. 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Through technology humans have the power to have an immense effect on that life.Ã¢â¬ [ii] The people of his time found that the impact of the Industrial Revolution would further manÃ¢â¬â¢s success within thisRead MoreKarl Marx on the German Ideology843 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesKarl Marx on the German Ideology: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels collaborated to produce The German Ideology, which was one of the classic texts generated by the two. Even though The German Ideology stands our as one of the major texts produced by the two, it was never published during MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s lifetime. This was a clear expression of the theory of history by Marx and its associated materialist metaphysics. One of the main reasons this text is a classic text by these philosophers is the fact that
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Communism vs. Socialism vs. Capitalism With every type of government, there are going to be many inefficiencies and flaws to deal with. A perfect way to run a country, socially and economically, has yet to be discovered. Social Equality and economic opportunity have proven throughout history to be two great entities that cannot be intertwined with each other. The idea of running communist country is good willed because it is striving for social equally for all and equal possession of the countrys economic resources. The problem with communism is that this leaves room for corrupt leaders to take over and almost obliterates all incentives for personal success and would not in any way allow people the opportunity to flourish as AristotleÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This allows the government to oversee everything corporations do and make sure they are doing it according to them. They have the authority to regulate production and the process of the production, limiting the freedom busi nesses have to do what they feel like is most efficient. The main purpose is to do what is the best for the people and to help the workers gain more benefits and rights from the corporations whom they work for, so in a sense they have a utilitarianism view of a society because they want to help the majority of the people. Socialism is still a free market and enterprise but it is much more limited than to what capitalistic country would be. This type of government still has incentives for people to work hard and succeed but you will see less go from rags to riches. Socialism has many benefits for the middle class people and those who are not the economic elites in society. Economic equality is more leveled out in this type of government because they push for more rights and benefits for the middle class by attempting to somewhat redistribute the wealth in the economy. They do this indirectly by taxing corporations more and giving them less power in running their production at the mos t cost efficient way. This takes away money from the owners and elites and allows them less room to get even richer and create monopolies. Social equality is also important in aShow MoreRelatedCapitalism Vs. Socialism And Communism1175 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Capitalism VS. Socialism/Communism Analysis The industrial revolution changed the way people lived. Before the industrial revolution all the work that is now done by machines was done by hand. It also allowed the ambitious working class man to join the rich at the top. This was done through capitalism and laisses-faire economics which gave businesses the ability to operate in a free market without government regulation. Capitalism deserves its share of criticism because of the abuses it causedRead MoreCapitalism Vs. 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